Advanced ceramics are differentiated from traditional ceramics such as brick and porcelain by their higher strength, higher operating temperatures, improved toughness, and tailorable properties. Also known as engineered ceramics, these materials are replacing metals in applications where reduced density and higher melting points can increase efficiency and speed of operation.
The nature of the bond between ceramic particles helps differentiate engineering ceramics from conventional ceramics. Most particles within an engineering ceramic are self-bonded; that is, joined at grain boundaries by the same energy-equilibrium mechanism that bonds metal grains together. In contrast, most non-engineering ceramic particles are joined by a so-called ceramic bond, which is a weaker, mechanical linking or interlocking of particles. Generally, impurities in nonengineering ceramics prevent the particles from self-bonding.
With the development of advanced ceramics, a more detailed, “advanced” definition of the material is required. This definition has been supplied by the 1993 Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS), which described an advanced ceramic as “an inorganic, nonmetallic (ceramic), basically crystalline material of rigorously controlled composition and manufactured with detailed regulation from highly refined and/or characterized raw materials giving precisely specified attributes.” .
Advanced ceramics are referred to in various parts of the world as technical ceramics, high-tech ceramics, and high-performance ceramics. The terms engineering ceramics and fine ceramics are used in the United Kingdom and Japan, respectively.
Ceramic materials used as technical ceramics or advanced ceramics in technical applications must satisfy extremely high demands in terms of their properties. The property spectrum ranges from wear and heat resistance, temperature and corrosion resistance all the way to biocompatibility and food compatibility.
- Flexural strength
- Chemical resistance
- Density and stiffness (Young’s modulus)
- Compressive strength
- Electrical insulation
- Dielectric strength
- Corrosion resistance
- Food compatibility
- Piezo-electricity and dynamics
- Temperature resistance
- Thermal shock and fluctuation resistance
- Metalization (joining technology)
- Wear resistance
- Thermal expansion
- Thermal insulation
- Thermal conductivity
These diverse properties make it possible to use technical ceramics in a variety of applications in the automotive industry, electronics, medical technology, energy and environment and in general equipment and mechanical engineering.
These are some example of advanced ceramics
Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) Aluminum Titanate (Al2TiO5) Mixed/Dispersion Ceramics.
Piezo-ceramics.Silicate Ceramics. Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2)
AluminumNitride (AlN) Silicon Carbide (SiSiC / SSiC) Silicon Nitride (Si3N4)SiAlONs.